Science Prerequisites for Health Professionals

BIOL 1040: Genetics

Credits - 4


This course will take a unified approach to transmission genetics, molecular genetics, cytogenetics, evolutionary genetics, molecular medicine, and developmental genetics. Students will learn from examples drawn from the scientific literature, which stress modern technological and experimental methodologies used in studying the genetics and genomics of prokaryotes, higher plants, and animals. Topic presentations will also reflect that genetic mechanisms play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis, treatment of diseases, and the maintenance of health. All course assessments will seek to emphasize important concepts.



  • Genetics: Analysis and Principles
    Robert J. Brooker, 5th or 6th edition

Note: Textbooks need to be purchased separately and are not part of your registration fee. All course materials are available through our bookstore at

You may use either the 5th or 6th edition of Brooker. However, if you would like to use Connect from McGraw-Hill, an optional self-assessment tool, you will need to purchase the 6th edition. It is recommended that students utilize CONNECT from McGraw-Hill to go through the course material with Learnsmart. This is a very good self-assessment tool. The access code comes bundled with the textbook if purchased from our bookstore or CONNECT may be purchased separately.

Lab Material

To complete the laboratory component of this course, students are directed to purchase the three (3) separate laboratory software listed below. Students are to order ALL THREE laboratory components directly from each of the three companies:

  • SIMBIOTIC Software – Detailed instructions are located within course.
  • Labster Software – Detailed instructions are located within course.
  • Hands On Lab (HOL) Kit
    • The kit must be purchased through HOL and cannot be purchased second hand or from another vendor.
    • Kits can take 5 – 7 business days to arrive.
    • Follow the HOL Kit Ordering Instructions using the Hands on Lab section link in the course.
    • Read and Review the HOL Return and Refund Policy

Mandatory Official UNE-approved external webcam and whiteboard – To be used during proctored Exams

Dry-Erase Whiteboard with Marker and Eraser (Optional for Proctored Exams). This course permits the use of a dry-erase whiteboard for scratch work during your proctored final exam. No scratch paper is permitted. The whiteboard must be purchased from the UNE authorized seller. Please note there is a discount if your order both the webcam and the whiteboard together. Choose “Whiteboard and Webcam Combo”.


Learning Objectives and Outcomes

Learning Outcomes for Science Prerequisites for Health Professions Program

In lecture courses, students should be able to:

  1. Communicate scientific concepts and information clearly.
  2. Illustrate fundamental laws, theories, and principles of scientific disciplines.
  3. Apply knowledge and critical thinking skills to scientific problems.

In lab courses, students should be able to:

  1. Ask a question or define a problem that can be tested.
  2. Hypothesize possible result(s).
  3. Plan and/or conduct an investigation individually and/or collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence.
  4. Analyze data using tools, technologies, and/or models (i.e. computational, mathematical, graphical, etc.) in order to make valid and reliable scientific claims or determine an optimal design solution.
  5. Communicate the results by constructing an explanation based on multiple pieces of valid and reliable evidence obtained from a variety of sources (including students’ own investigations, models, theories, simulations, peer review) and the assumption that theories and laws that describe the natural world operate today as they did in the past and will continue to do so in the future.
  6. Apply scientific ideas, principles, and/or evidence gained from various experiments, as well as other observations and/or research, to provide an explanation of phenomena and solve design problems, taking into account possible unanticipated effects.

Course Objectives

Upon successful completion of the course, students will be able to:

  • Fluently use the genetics vocabulary (eg. genotype, allele, multifactorial)
  • Apply the principles of inheritance as formulated by Mendel.
  • Predict the probabilities of inheritance of a single trait
  • Calculate the probability that two events will occur together
  • Apply the principles of extensions to Mendelian inheritance (eg. multiple allelism, lethal alleles, gene interactions, sex-linked transmission)
  • Draw a diagram that shows how the inheritance of genes relates to the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis
  • Describe chromosome behavior and changes in chromosome structure and number that occur during the eukaryotic cell through a cell cycle, meiosis I, meiosis II, and gamete formation
  • Explain how meiosis and random fertilization contribute to genetic variation in sexually reproducing organisms
  • Distinguish between Mendelian and non-Mendelian patterns of inheritance (eg. reduced penetrance, variable expressivity, uniparental disomy, epigenetics, mosaicism, genomic imprinting, unstable repeat expansion)
  • Articulate the relationship between genetic, physical, and cytogenetic maps.
  • Compare the effect of linkage and independent assortment on genetic outcomes and assess data to determine if genes are linked or on separate chromosomes
  • Explain how crossing over produces recombination and use recombination frequencies to construct a genetic map
  • Use genetic maps to predict gametic and mating outcomes
  • Compare and contrast mutation and horizontal gene transfer (transformation, conjugation, and generalized versus specialized transduction) as methods of enabling bacteria to acquire novel genetic traits and adapt to new environments
  • Describe normal chromosome number, structure, and behavior in human cells
  • Understand the cause and effect of alterations in chromosome number and/or structures and explain how these anomalies arise and are detected
  • Relate the molecular structure of chromosomes to storage, gene expression, and sequence function
  • Describe the process of DNA replication in prokaryotes at the biochemical level
  • Explain how proofreading and repair is accomplished during DNA synthesis
  • Describe how DNA is replicated in prokaryotes and identify similarities and differences with replication in eukaryotes
  • Articulate the basic aspects of the flow of genetic information from DNA to proteins including transcription and RNA processing in bacteria and eukaryotes, the various types of post-transcriptional processing, protein translation, and posttranslational changes
  • Describe the general organization of the genomes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
  • Identify different types of RNA, note their properties, how they are processed to yield a functional form, and their function in gene expression
  • Recognize the importance of regulating gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and describe the levels at which gene expression is controlled and the mechanisms used by each
  • The genomic structures, replication, and genetics of viruses
  • Understand how to identify and classify mutations in DNA
  • Articulate how mutation is related to genes, chromosomes, the environment and genetic variability
  • Describe DNA repair systems, comparing and contrasting eukaryotic and bacterial systems
  • Explain the mechanisms and importance of recombination, repair and transposition
  • Explain major methods and techniques used in molecular genetics to isolate, recombine, amplify, find and study genes of interest
  • Describe map-based and whole genome shotgun sequencing approaches
  • Explain how genetic and physical chromosome maps are prepared
  • Access and use genetic information from public databases to solve problems in biotechnology, medicine, or biology
  • Illustrate how information generated by genome sequencing projects can be used to discover practical knowledge about gene expression and relationships between species
  • Analyze genetic data using statistical procedures and calculate the frequencies of genes and genotypes in a population
  • Participate in informed discussions about appropriate and inappropriate uses of new genetic technologies in the future


Chapter Tests, Vocabulary Quizzes, Unit Exams, Case Study, and Final Exam


To receive a passing grade in Genetics you must complete all assessments, Discussion Boards, and the Case Study assignment, as well as:

  • Complete all thirteen (13) of the associated laboratory exercises
  • Submit your Extraction of DNA Lab Report
  • Attempt and complete the lecture Final Exam

Chapter Tests

The chapter tests are multiple choice and matching. The tests can be accessed by clicking on the link in Blackboard. The chapter tests are open book/open note and are intended to help you review for the unit exams. They are timed for 90 minutes and you have three attempts at each test; the questions for each attempt cover the same material, although they may be different. The highest of the three attempt grades will be recorded in the grade book. If you take the test only once, that grade will be recorded in the grade book. To prepare for the chapter tests, complete the readings, view the lecture material, and review using the CONNECT and other study helps posted in the chapter week. Also, review the end-of-chapter questions and other study aides in your textbook. When you are ready, take the test. If you wish, you may review the material and take the test a second or third time.

Weekly Vocabulary Quizzes

Each week has a 20-term vocabulary quiz. The terms are selected from the chapter vocabulary lists. The quizzes are timed for 60 minutes and are taken online through the Blackboard site. Each quiz is accessed by clicking on the link in Blackboard. The quizzes are open book/open note and are intended to help you review for the unit exams. To prepare for the vocabulary quizzes read through the lists of terms for each chapter within the week. Fit the terms into the context of the learning objectives for each chapter. The vocabulary quizzes are timed and you have three attempts at each quiz. When you are ready, take the quiz. If you wish, you may review the material and take the quiz a second or third time.

Unit Exams

The eight-unit exams are unproctored and timed for 120 minutes, consisting of multiple choice, true/false, and matching with all questions graded automatically upon the completion of the unit exam. These unit exams are single-attempt (with no pauses allowed during the 2 hour time frame) and may be taken only once. The unit exams will be available only after all the quizzes, tests and other assessments in the unit are completed. The exams will include topics covered in the textbook, learning objectives, and lectures for each unit.  These exams are open notes/open book; however, you should review the material as though you will not have the notes or book available. There will not be time during the exam to look up every answer. Of the 8 unit exams, your 7 highest exams will count toward your final grade (the lowest score will be dropped).

The Genetics Case Study

The case studies are meant to be an enjoyable, interesting, and informative assignment.  This is your chance to show that you understand the key genetic, molecular, medical, and informational teaching points about a genetic disease and to communicate these points to me in a written format. There will be a prompt in Unit 8 to e-mail your instructor if you need further explanation, need help selecting a topic, and other questions regarding the Case Study Assignment. I have a list of several suggestions for topics. If you have a particular interest in a different genetic disease, or you are intrigued by a particular disease, please feel free to use your own topic for the assignment.

Final Exam (Mandatory)

The three-hour cumulative final exam is a proctored (through ProctorU) test consisting of multiple-choice, matching, short answer, true/false and short answer essay questions. It is a closed book exam; however, you may use a digital version of the provided essay topics document as a memory aid and the UNE authorized whiteboard during the exam. Use of the official UNE-approved external webcam required. You must purchase the Official UNE External Webcam to take your proctored examinations. Remember to order your webcam at least three weeks prior to scheduling your first proctored exam.

If using the UNE authorized whiteboard, you must first show your proctor that your whiteboard is clear at the beginning of your testing session. You must also erase your whiteboard in front of the proctor before disconnecting from your session. If you do not do this, your exam will not be credited.

If using the BIOL 1040 Genetics Possible Topics for Short Answer Essay Questions PDF during your exam, you must first open the document in front of your proctor just before you start your exam. It must be a digital copy, no printed copies are allowed.

The final exam is closed for review. You will not be able to review this exam at any time. Please contact your instructor for specific feedback. Please review the Proctored Examinations information and requirements in the Policies section of this syllabus.

Discussion Board Posts

Discussion questions cover interesting current events or materials that contribute to a deeper understanding of key concepts and allow you to interact with your classmates and the instructor. Most of the discussion questions are designed to accompany particular chapters (see specific discussion questions for more information). Each question will require you to conduct internet research, read additional materials (a short journal or magazine article), visit a specific webpage, or view a short video. Then you will write a response following the guidelines in the assignment.

To earn full credit: you will need to post a response, respond to the original posts of at least two (2) other students, and then contribute to an ongoing discussion in a manner that enhances and advances the discussion. For special cases where one or two students are accelerating faster through the course, the instructor will participate in the discussion so that everyone has the opportunity to interact.

Discussion Question Guidelines

  1. Read the assignment carefully so that you are familiar with the materials that you need to cover and how to craft your post.
  2. Respect each other’s ideas, feelings, and experiences. Some of the questions involve areas of disagreement. Expect your classmates to have different opinions.
  3. Use proper writing style. Correct spelling and sentence structure are expected just as if you were writing a regular paper. Use spell check and grammar check before you submit.
  4. Write your posting in a word document! That way you can save a copy and use spell check and grammar check.
  5. Cite the sources that you use to write your response. Follow the AMA guidelines.
  6. Avoid posting large blocks of text. Break your writing into paragraphs and use a space between paragraphs to make your posting easier to read online.
  7. Subscribe to the discussion so that you get email updates when there is activity.
  8. Use the “reply” button rather than the “compose” button when responding to someone else’s post.
  9. When responding to a classmate, address them by name.
  10. Do not use postings such as “I agree,” “I don’t know either,” or “ditto.” They do not add to the discussion, take up space on the Discussions, and will not be counted.
  11. Everyone benefits from an active discussion. Check back in frequently to see what others are saying.
  12. Plan your time carefully. You will need to give your classmates time to respond to your postings. This is an asynchronous class where students will be in different points of the class.
  13. Contact your instructor if there are schedule problems or other issues that need to be resolved.

Examination and Grading Information

Lecture Grade

Chapter Tests and Module Vocabulary Quizzes 15% of the lecture grade
8 Unit Exams (unproctored, lowest score is dropped, 7 total) 20% of the lecture grade
Final Exam (proctored through ProctorU) 25% of the lecture grade
Genetics Case Study 20% of the lecture grade
Genetics Discussion Board 20% of the lecture grade
Total 100% of the lecture grade

Laboratory Grade

13 Laboratory Assignments, 1 Lab Report 100% of the laboratory grade
Total 100% of the laboratory grade

Final Grade

Lecture Grade 75% of Final Grade
Laboratory Grade 25% of Final Grade
Total Course Grade 100%

A letter grade is assigned according to the scheme below. The final course grade will not be posted until all the quizzes, tests, unit exams, lab exercises, and the genetics case study are completed.

Grade Scale

Grade Points Grade Point Average (GPA)
A 94 – 100% 4.00
A- 90 – 93% 3.75
B+ 87 – 89% 3.50
B 84 – 86% 3.00
B- 80 – 83% 2.75
C+ 77 – 79% 2.50
C 74 – 76% 2.00
C- 70 – 73% 1.75
D 64 – 69% 1.00
F 00 – 63% 0.00


Course Outline

Please note the assigned reading in Blackboard is from Brooker, 5th edition. Where there are differences between editions, the chapter with the corresponding information in the 6th edition is noted below. Please use this as a guide if you are using Brooker, 6th edition.

Unit 1

Week 1

  • CH. 1. Overview of Genetics
  • CH. 2. Mendelian Inheritance
  • SIMBIO 1 Lab Exercises: Mitosis Explored
  • Chapter Tests
  • Vocabulary Quiz 1

Week 2

  • CH. 3. Chromosome Transmission during Cell Division and Sexual Reproduction
  • CH. 4. Extensions of Mendelian Inheritance
  • SIMBIO 2 Lab Exercises: Meiosis Explored
  • Chapter Tests
  • Vocabulary Quiz 2

Unit 1 Discussion Board – What is Genetics?
Unit 1 Exam

Unit 2

Week 3

  • CH. 5. Non-Mendelian Inheritance
  • CH. 6. Genetic Linkage and Mapping in Eukaryotes
  • SIMBIO 3 Lab Exercises: Mendelian Pigs
  • Chapter Tests
  • Vocabulary Quiz 3

Week 4

  • CH. 7. Genetic Transfer and Mapping in Bacteria and Bacteriophages
  • CH. 8. Variation in Chromosome Structure and Number
  • Hands On Lab 1 Exercises: Human Genetics
  • Chapter Tests
  • Vocabulary Quiz 4

Unit 2 Exam

Unit 3

Week 5

  • CH. 9. Molecular Structure of DNA and RNA
  • Hands On Lab 2 Exercises: Extraction of DNA and Lab Report
    • (Note: In addition to completing the HOL lab itself, you will also write and submit a formal lab report for this exercise. See instructions located in Week 5.)
  •  Chapter Test
  • Vocabulary Quiz 5

Week 6

  • CH. 10. Chromosome Organization and Molecular Structure
  • CH. 11. DNA Replication
  • Hands On Lab 3 Exercises: DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis
  • Chapter Tests
  • Vocabulary Quiz 6

Unit 3 Discussion Board – Optogenetics
Unit 3 Exam

Unit 4

Week 7

  • CH. 12. Gene Transcription and RNA Modification
  • CH. 13. Translation of mRNA
  • Hands On Lab 4 Exercises: Plant Genetics – Breeding and selection
  • Chapter Tests
  • Vocabulary Quiz 7

Week 8

  • CH. 14. Gene Regulation in Bacteria
  • CH. 15. Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes I: Transcriptional Regulation
  • Labster 1 Exercises: Cytogenetics
  • Chapter Tests
  • Vocabulary Quiz 8

Unit 4 Exam

Unit 5

Week 9

  • CH. 16. Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes II: Epigenetics & Regulation at the RNA Level [6th Edition: CH. 16. Gene Regulation Eukaryotes II: Epigenetics]
  • CH. 17. Genetics of Viruses [6th Edition: CH. 18 Genetics of Viruses]
  • Labster 2 Exercises: Gene Regulation
  • Chapter Tests
  • Vocabulary Quiz 9

Week 10

  • CH. 18. Gene Mutation and DNA Repair [6th Edition: CH. 19 Gene Mutation and DNA Repair]
  • CH. 19. Recombination and Transposition at the Molecular Level [6th Edition:  CH. 20: Recombination, Immunogenetics, and Transposition]
  • Labster 3 Exercises: Animal Genetics
  • Chapter Tests
  • Vocabulary Quiz 10

Unit 5 Discussion Board – Animals in Biomedical Research
Unit 5 Exam

Unit 6

Week 11

  • CH. 20. DNA Technologies [6th Edition: CH. 21 Molecular Technologies]
  • CH. 21. Biotechnology [6th Edition: CH. 22 Biotechnology]
  • Labster 4 Exercises: Molecular Cloning
  • Chapter Tests
  • Vocabulary Quiz 11

Week 12

  • CH. 22. Genomics I: Analysis of DNA [6th Edition: CH. 23 Genomics I: Analysis of DNA]
  • CH. 23. Genomics II: Functional Genomics, Proteomics, and Bioinformatics [6th Edition: CH. 24 Genomics II: Functional Genomics, Proteomics]
  • Chapter Tests
  • Vocabulary Quiz 12

Unit 6 Exam

Unit 7

Week 13

  • CH. 24. Medical Genetics and Cancer [6th Edition: CH. 25 Medical Genetics and Cancer]
  • Labster 5 Exercises: Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Chapter Test
  • Vocabulary Quiz 13

Week 14

  • CH. 25. Developmental Genetics [6th Edition: CH. 26 Developmental Genetics]
  • Labster 6 Exercises: Next Generation Sequencing
  • Chapter Test
  • Vocabulary Quiz 14

Unit 7 Discussion Board – Personal Genomics
Unit 7 Exam

Unit 8

Week 15

  • CH. 26. Population Genetics [6th Edition: CH. 27 Population Genetics]
  • CH. 27. Quantitative Genetics [6th Edition: CH. 28: Complex and Quantitative Traits]
  • Chapter Tests
  • Vocabulary Quiz 15

Week 16

  • CH. 28. Evolutionary Genetics [6th Edition: CH. 29: Evolutionary Genetics]
  • Chapter Test
  • Vocabulary Quiz 16

Genetics Case Study
Unit 8 Exam

Final Exam

Student Resources

Student Portal: Your Best UNE Resource

We created the UNE Online Student Portal, specifically for you, to be a useful collection of information to support you as you navigate your online course(s).

From the UNE Online Student Portal, you can access:

  • Blackboard
  • Technical Support
  • Library
  • Bookstore
  • UNE Email
  • U-Online

The portal also features:

  • Dates to Remember
  • Support and Services
  • Contact information for your Support Specialist
  • Academic Resources - links to the Academic Calendar, Registrar and Academic Calendar
  • Financial - links to eBilling, Financial Aid and Student Accounts

Instructor and Support Contact Information

Check the course welcome page in Blackboard for specific instructor and support specialist contact information.

Further Assistance

Your student service advisor monitors course progression and provides assistance or guidance when needed. They can assist questions regarding ordering course materials, University policies, billing, navigating the course in Blackboard, and more.

Student Lounge

The Student Lounge Discussion Board is a designated support forum in which students may engage with each other and grapple with course content. Feel free to post questions, seek clarification, and support each other, but be mindful of UNE’s Academic Integrity Policy.

Your instructor will monitor this forum. However, if you are seeking specific and timely answers to questions about course content or your personal grades, please contact your instructor via course messages. For questions about course materials, program policy, and how to navigate and proceed through the course, please contact your Student Service Advisor through the Student Portal.


Any student who would like to request, or ask any questions regarding, academic adjustments or accommodations must contact the Student Access Center at (207) 221-4438 or Student Access Center staff will evaluate the student's documentation and determine eligibility of accommodation(s) through the Student Access Center registration procedure.


Proctored Examinations

The University of New England has contracted with ProctorU to provide students with the most convenient online exam proctoring system. This system provides a simple, no cost to the student, secure, online proctor for exams and allows the student to take all the exams at home and on their own schedule.

Upon enrollment into the course, each student will register with ProctorU and establish a login name and password. This will give the student access to all of ProctorU’s services. When ready, students will schedule each of their proctored exams with ProctorU. Exams must be scheduled at least 72 hours in advance to avoid fees. Prior to taking their exams, students must be sure that they have downloaded the ProctorU Chrome or Firefox extension and are using the most current version of Chrome or Firefox. They must also be sure their testing site’s connection meets the minimum requirements by using ProctorU’s “Test It Out” utility.

Upon the exam day and hour, students will log in to ProctorU and click on “exams”. After following the procedures outlined at ProctorU’s web site, the student will log in to Blackboard and locate their correct exam. The proctor will then allow student access to that exam.

Students must use ProctorU and must follow all proctoring requirements for their exams to be credited.

Proctored exams are not available for review at any time. You will not be able to see the questions, nor the answers you've given, after completing the exams. Please contact your instructor for specific feedback.

Course Discussions

Discussion board assignments cover interesting current events or materials related to this course that contribute to a deeper understanding of key concepts and allow you to interact with your classmates and the instructor. Each assignment may require you to conduct internet research, read additional materials (a short journal or magazine article), visit a specific webpage, AND/OR view a short video prior to writing a response following the specific guidelines in the assignment.

To earn full credit: you will need to post a response to the discussion topic, respond to the original posts of at least two other students, and then contribute meaningfully to an ongoing discussion. You will need to post your initial response before you will see any posts from your classmates. Please keep in mind that only this initial response is included in your assignment grade, so make sure you have followed all of the guidelines and written a complete response prior to submitting the post. For special cases where one or two students are accelerating faster through the course, the instructor will participate in the discussion so that everyone has the opportunity to interact.

Please see Blackboard for a full description, along with specific guidelines, for each assignment. Discussion board assignments should be completed, along with all other assignments in the course, in the order that they appear. Due to the course design, you may be unable to take a proctored exam if you do not complete all assignments that appear prior to that exam.

Please also refer to the Grading Policy/Grade Breakdown section of the syllabus to learn the percentage of your grade that each discussion board assignment is worth.

Technology Requirements

Please review the technical requirements for UNE Online Graduate Programs:

Course Length

A schedule of lectures and assignments is included in this syllabus. This is, however a self-paced course and you can complete the course in less time.

  1. Courses in the SPHP program are equivalent to one-semester courses designed to be completed in 16 weeks
  2. Enrollment in the course begins the day your section opens which is listed in the Academic Calendar found on the Student Success Portal.
  3. Course start and end dates are in respect to Eastern Time.

Withdrawal and Refund Policies

Please visit this page to review the withdrawal and refund policies.

Grade Policy

Students are expected to attempt and complete all graded assignments and proctored exams by the end date of the course. To view the incomplete grade policy, please click here.


Due to the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, only the student may request official transcripts. This may be done online by going to the University of New England Registrar website and following the directions on the page.

To view your unofficial UNE student transcript:

  1. Log into uonline at
  2. Select Student Services
  3. Select Student Records
  4. Select Academic Transcript

To request your official UNE student transcript:

Please review your Unofficial Transcript prior to requesting an Official Transcript.

  1. Log into uonline at
  2. Select Student Services
  3. Select Student Records
  4. Select Request Printed/Official Transcript
  5. Follow the prompts

After you click Submit Request, your official transcript will be put into the queue to be printed in the Registrar’s Office.

Academic Integrity

The University of New England values academic integrity in all aspects of the educational experience. Academic dishonesty in any form undermines this standard and devalues the original contributions of others. It is the responsibility of all members of the University community to actively uphold the integrity of the academy; failure to act, for any reason, is not acceptable.

Academic dishonesty includes, but is not limited to the following:

  1. Cheating, copying, or the offering or receiving of unauthorized assistance or information.
  2. Fabrication or falsification of data, results, or sources for papers or reports.
  3. Action which destroys or alters the work of another student.
  4. Multiple submission of the same paper or report for assignments in more than one course without permission of each instructor.
  5. Plagiarism, the appropriation of records, research, materials, ideas, or the language of other persons or writers and the submission of them as one's own.

Charges of academic dishonesty will be reviewed by the Program Director. Penalties for students found responsible for violations may depend upon the seriousness and circumstances of the violation, the degree of premeditation involved, and/or the student’s previous record of violations. Appeal of a decision may be made to the Dean whose decision will be final. Student appeals will take place through the grievance process outlined in the student handbook.